Pages 295 - 340
800px-Andromeda's_Colorful_Rings.jpg
Image from NASA, this file is public and free to use.



Essential Themes


New Space and the Commercialization of Space


The concepts and technology of New Space affect our celestial future greatly. New Space is a large part of the foundation on which we base our research. It consists less of the outdated space travel- exploration used solely for research- and instead tries to discover new information a more commercial point of view. For example, a company called Mars One expects to create a permanent colony on Mars in the future for an interplanetary reality show. Companies and researchers focusing on New Space tend to have more innovative technologies. In addition, they often create products more aesthetically pleasing in order to draw in more attention and profit.

Space tourism is a large topic in the commercialization of space. In fact, there are individuals already signed up to pay hundreds of thousands of dollars to fulfill their dreams of flying into space. This innovative and growing franchise could increase the technological growth of space travel extremely. Although current 'space tourists' will have to pay excessive amounts of money and do not technically fly out of the Earth's orbit, humans will begin to want even more.
In New Space, the commercialization of space will begin. Since people may be able to fly into space and orbit the planet on a regular basis, companies may begin to build stores in space that orbit the planet.
In New Space, the commercialization of space will begin. Since people may be able to fly into space and orbit the planet on a regular basis, companies may begin to build stores in space that orbit the planet.
Considering this, humanity as a race will continue to update technologies in order to fly through what is truly outer space. The parts and upgrades developed could then be put to use and worked upon in order to be fit to travel for more scientific purposes.


Continuing the topic of space tourism, a company named Virgin Galactic was developed. It was created by Virgin Atlantic, a commercial airline, for the sole purpose of taking customers into space. These soon-to-be astronauts are held at the spaceport for about three days, preparing for the flight by bonding with their crew members and taking health and wellness tests. The flight consists of a slow climb to 50,000 feet above earth as the spacecraft is carried on a commercial airplane to conserve fuel. Soon after the target altitude is reached, the engines take off and the shuttle reaches a speed of almost 2500 miles per hour, or nearly three times the speed of sound. The passengers get to experience zero gravity for a time period not yet determined. Afterwards, the spacecraft lands and the customers are allowed to go home. This is an amazing example of commercializing space. This company uses space travel to earn large sums of money, with technology that could be reused for more scientific reasons later on. Space tourism could be the next large step towards exploring the galaxy.



Space Elevator
In time, we will have the ability to travel into space by an elevator. The Space Elevator may be able to reduce the cost of traveling to space. How will the space elevator work? What materials will we utilize to create it?

T
spaceelevator.jpg
Conceptual space elevator. It conveys the possible design and shows how the technology may be used.
he elevator must be anchored to the ground by an oil platform just to insure that the space elevator is not damaged by weather. Along with needing the ability to move, the space elevator would have to be strong and light. One proposed idea is to use carbon nanotubes to build the elevator, although currently, it is not easy to create more than a foot of carbon nanotubes. In the case of the cable on the elevator breaking, the space elevator would be provided with an escape pod or panic button, in which would connect back to Earth to alert that there is an emergency. The elevator cab would safely send the passengers back by either sliding or parachuting.


NASA, the world famous space company, has helped people create prototypes, with help by other organizations such as LaserMotive. LaserMotive is a group out of Seattle, Washington. Instead of electrical cables hanging from space, they developed a powerful laser that would allow the elevator to climb a short cable by firing the laser at a mirror on the bottom of the elevator. We would be obligated to wear a special type of goggles that would protect our eyes if we were to use this elevator. Of course, the Space Elevator would still need some sort of cable connected to the equator and have a weighted end on the top of the space elevator so that centrifugal force created from the Earth spinning could hold up the elevator. Many people continue to work today to create better models of the space elevator, although with the works of LaserMotive, we may eventually take a quick vacation into space in our lifetime.

Interstellar Spaceship Theme

Traveling through the vast universe to different stars always seemed like a science fiction characteristic, but believe it or not, we are closer to that reality than you may think. DARPA or the Development Advanced Research Project Agency is currently attempting to fund a research group to help them develop an Interstellar Spaceship with their new 100 Year Starship Program. Holding multiple conventions, these brilliant scientist have came to four main ideas of how to develop a starship that follows the laws of physics using technology we currently have. The first idea is to use nuclear fission to power a reactor to propel the starship to other galaxies, although currently scientists say that the uranium used in the process is far too unstable to rely on in Space.

Ramjet fusion, on the other hand, is an idea being discussed by a vast majority of rocket scientists. Ramjet fusion would consist of a rocket with an enormous funnel on the back to suck up hydrogen in space. The rocket would then use electric and magnetic fields to fuse the hydrogen together to make helium creating a colossal amount of energy, thus creating the possibility to propel the rocket at a speed of 77% the speed of light. Still, this may not be true, for the rocket may feel a drag when the funnel is overwhelmed with hydrogen in an area filled with hydrogen, thus slowing it down so that the rocket would be able to collect the gas.

Next, the solar sail idea was brought up. This idea consists of a rocket with a massive sail on it that would catch the momentum of light from the
Solar sail. A few kilometers wide, this type of spaceship propulsion utilizes light rays to move forward.
Solar sail. A few kilometers wide, this type of spaceship propulsion utilizes light rays to move forward.
sun and revolve around the sun until this rocket gains enough momentum to speed off at speeds of .1 percent the speed of light to another galaxy.


Finally, an idea of a rocket that would hold an antimatter engine emerged. This rocket would contain an engine full of antimatter that would be within a magnetic force field until antimatter would want to be released. Once released, the antimatter would combine with regular matter to create an exponential release of energy propelling the rocket into the cosmos. This rocket could travel nearly the speed of light, although currently, the antimatter would cost nearly trillions of dollars just to develop. All of these ideas have the possibility to send a human into another galaxy. It is only a matter of time before we get up close and personal with these stars that we have so far, only seen as twinkles in the sky.

The Possibility of Finding Other Life in Space

The possibility that we find life in our universe in the next century is believe it or not, extremely likely, although to understand how we may get to this revolutionary point in humanity, we must look back a little bit in time. Decades ago, Earth was once thought to be the only planet that could support life. Soon, it was discovered that planets in the Goldilocks Zone such as Earth and Mars, were thought to be the only planets with any chance of sustaining life, for all living beings need water, preferably in its liquid state. With this discovery, we began to use large telescopes from Earth to discover planets in other solar systems, although the only planets that we could see were highly-reflective, humongous, gas-giants that were unable to support life.
Above is a picture of what the Terrestrial Planet Finder would look like in space.
Above is a picture of what the Terrestrial Planet Finder would look like in space.

Kepler Mission and the COROT satellite changed this. These space telescopes launched in 2006 (COROT Satellite) and 2009 (Kepler Mission telescope) were developed to scan thousands of stars looking for tiny fluctuations of light that are produced when a small terrestrial planet moves in front of the star it is revolving around. Once the planets are found, calculations can be made to see if the planet is within the Goldilocks Zone to see if that planet has liquid water to support life. Now, the Terrestrial Planet Finder is the new cutting-edge telescope that has a mirror four times larger and 100 times more sensitive than the Hubble telescope. Although this remarkable telescope has been postponed to be sent in space several times, once in space, the Terrestrial Planet Finder would truly provide a significant amount of information with its enormous mirror and infrared sensors. Also, with the infrared sensors, the Terrestrial Planet Finder could even invalidate the stars intense radiation thereby revealing the small, dim planet in clear picture. Soon, we will know hundreds of terrestrial planets with the potential that a select fifty have liquid water, although there may also be life in our universe that may be very close to us, too, and we may just not know it yet.

What has revolutionized our previous beliefs even more has been found by examining one of Jupiter moons, Europa. The moon Europa has an enormous amount of ice on it, although what shocked scientists was that there was an ocean that has twice the density of all of our oceans on Earth, filled with liquid water on Europa. The water is heated by friction from orbiting Jupiter. Jupiter, being a gas giant, has a mammoth amount of gravitational pull which in turn pulls the moon with a strong pull in different directions creating friction at the moons core, heating the water on the moon. This ground-breaking discovery has made scientists aware of the possibilities of life on moons. Now, we are in a situation where it is not only possible to find life on other planets, but it is possible to find life on a gas giant's moon. With all of these possibilities, it will only be soon until space probes will be sent to check for life on these distant lands. Do you remember seeing all those green cartoon characters that were supposed to be aliens? We may finally find out what other life on other planets or moons may look like in the next century.

Predicted Impact


Above is a picture of a model of a rocket that may be used in the future for space travel.
Above is a picture of a model of a rocket that may be used in the future for space travel.


Economic

New Space and the Commercialization of Space
New Space and the Commercialization of Space may have a massive effect on the economy. Commercialization, as a whole, means ‘the process or cycle of introducing a new product onto the market.’ In the past, trips to space were solely taken for research of other planets and galaxies. With New Space, trips to space would be taken for business or leisure. A vacation to space is completely out of the question for one's budget now, but in the years to come, this could be a feasible vacation for an average family of the middle and upper class.

If space is utilized for commercialization, it will bring many economic changes. These could be both good, and bad. As an example, space tourism brings in a whole new service- albeit an expensive one- to the world. Numerous individuals have already signed up for a $250,000 trip into space on Virgin Galactic. This fact alone shows the enormous sum of money that can be earned from the commercialization of space. Although Space Commercialization would bring in very large amounts of profit, it would take a great deal of money to get it started.

Interstellar Spaceship

It is difficult to imagine how or who will build the first interstellar spaceship, but one idea is for sure: this spaceship will definitely be quite an investment. With our current technology in rocket propulsion systems, organizations have estimated how much it will cost to build an interstellar spaceship. So far, all known interstellar spaceship ideas would cost over 1 trillion dollars, and some ideas would even end up costing around 100 trillion dollars. Also, this money is only to build the actual spaceship, while even more money would be needed to research and develop the spaceship ideas before the final product is built.

The only possible way for a nation to create an interstellar spaceship by itself, would be if that nation was a power-house, much like the United States, and had a baseline annual economic growth of 2% per year for decades. This is very unlikely, so another proposed idea is to have all the nations in the world contribute to this spaceship to eventually unite humanity to allow humans to travel throughout the cosmos. While this is also extremely unlikely, private enterprise may take off with organizations in our world so that a group of people who are overwhelmingly rich could fund this spaceship. No matter what, it is said that this spaceship will eventually begin its building stage by 2340. Obviously, funding this amazing spaceship will be an enormous problem, although once funded, humans may finally explore the vast galaxies around us that so far, we have only seen as dots in the sky.

The Possibility of Finding Other Life in Space
It currently costs approximately ten thousand dollars to put a single pound of any object into orbit. Although some people are undoubtedly going to get excited over the thought of traveling to the scene of the new found life, cost barriers are going to get in the way. Even though most people are in favor of exploring outer space, the money and resources to fund these explorations doesn't just appear. It is too expensive to send space crafts into orbit. When it came to the Space Race of the late twentieth century, scientists pushed the high price out of the way, and their lack of attention to the long-term consequences hurt space exploration around 2010, when they had to cancel the space shuttle program The cost of space exploration would send several countries into further debt than they are in already. Will astronomers disregard the high prices again, and will this more damage than harm? Maybe, maybe not.


Space Elevator
The construction and science of a space elevator could have extreme economic implications. The massive cost and size of a space elevator could drain the money out of a particular government fund. Taxes may be raised in order to gain a larger income for the government. Certain companies may even be boycotted due to refusal of a space elevator. A space elevator would be very expensive due to the pricing of carbon nanotubes that would be needed to build it, and it’s not necessary. Supporters of a space elevator would be disappointed, however, the money should be spent on other more pressing matters at the moment. A number of businesses could be improved or put out of business based on the invention of a space elevator.
Hypothetically though, if the space elevator were to be built, eventually may be around ten dollars per pound to put an object into the space elevator. The space elevator would start out shipping people and cargo into space for large amounts of money, although the only way to simply commercial space would be to have the space elevator cost around ten dollars per pound to ship an object into space. No doubt, the space elevator would be quite a unique investment.




Political

New Space and the Commercialization of Space
New Space’s effect on politics will most likely be directed towards NASA. NASA, being a government organization and in the ‘Old Space’ category, may take a hit from the innovations of New Space. Politicians will debate on whether or not NASA should continue research and operation or if it should switch its focus to some other ideas relating more to New Space. Countries and companies would be in competition with each other to make the latest innovation in commercializing space. Every country with the resources to work create new space technology will want to be beyond the other countries, similar to how the U.S. and the Soviet Union were during the Cold War in their attempts to put a man on the moon. Presidential candidates may campaign against unlawful space travel or raise taxes to pay for certain spacecraft. Politicscould be changed forever by the growth of New Space.

Interstellar Spaceship
To understand the political aspects of building the interstellar spaceship, you must first understand the economic and social effects of building the interstellar spaceship. Considering the trillions of dollars and the estimated 400 million workers needed to research, develop, and build the interstellar spaceship, a large amount of countries will be needed to pull off this project. First, politically, if any government intends on helping to fund this spaceship, they will need to ensure that their economy is in a very good state. Many governments will strive to better their economies and work on fixing their country at home. Once that country believes it has enough money to provide a sufficient amount of economical help to the interstellar spaceship program, that country will look to employ intelligent and valuable workers to represent their country. Then, each nation would have to strive for peace.

Politically, leaders of every participating nation would have to get together and call for a long period of peace with one another to ensure that the program does not get halfway completed and then bashed on the head by war. Lastly, the nations would have to set up a great rule book for the interstellar spaceship and use all necessary force to protect the spaceship and the rules of the spaceship from terrorism and evil. No doubt that what our world is looking at is a very daunting task, although if political leaders can ensure peace, protection, and a strong economy, the interstellar spaceship may eventually soar its way into reality.

The Possibility of Finding Other Life in Space
If life is discovered outside of Earth, who does it belong to? If the U.S. discovers the life first, will it cause the stability with Russia to be disrupted? Will the U.S. have the funding to do research, when the life is found? This will be a controversial topic not only to the U.S. government, but the governments of other countries as well. The question is if the U.S.will all agree on taking the exploration. The possibility of finding other life in space will undoubtedly cause political stirrup within the next century, at a time frame where the spotlight is not focusing on more pressing issues.


Space Elevator
If there were to be one and only one space elevator in our entire world, than this elevator would obviously have a tremendous amount of controversy. Remember, the space elevator would have to be on an object in water, like an extremely strong aircraft carrier or an oil rig, so that it could move and avoid extreme weather. Therefore, it is not like the controversy will be whether the space elevator will be in Houston or in Moscow. The controversy will be on where in the water will the space elevator be, who will hold most ownership to it, and who will devote millions of dollars to maintain and protect the space elevator at all costs. Most of this information, may be decided on what countries will choose to fund the space elevator and what countries will give the most amount of money to the project. Most likely, the space elevator will be an international tourist attraction in international waters, although then again, where will the money from tourists who choose to ride the space elevator go to?

Political leaders will have to decide whether they should and how much they should invest into the space elevator and also decide if they would be able to make a profit off of their investments. Political leaders could attempt to fund organizations to build the space elevator and then the organization would eventually pay the country back, too. All of this, simply comes down to business and who and how can any country or organization make money off of tourist riding the space elevator. To avoid political conflict, it is said that the first space elevator will be built on the moon, although then again, who will fund this project? Politically, the entire project of the space elevator depends on political leaders and whether or not they believe they could make a profit on this enormous tourist attraction.



Social

New Space and the Commercialization of Space
New Space could have an enormous social impact on our world. For example, countries and nationalities may begin a new type of 'Race to Space’, yet instead of shooting for the moon, shooting for profit. Foreign companies and organizations could begin competing; making bigger, better spaceships, using space for entertainment, and/or making space travel more available to the common man. Their actions would be in order to bring in a larger income and become a leader in ‘space entertainment.’ This may go so far as to create international alliances, and possibly even break them. Leaders could take extreme actions to send the common man into space. It will most likely become a very normal occasion that the average family would take a vacation to the Moon or somewhere else in outer space in the future. Only time will tell.

Interstellar Spaceship
The interstellar spaceship project being a massive project would draw a huge amount of attention around the globe. Even if the entire world is not needed to fund the spaceship, the researching, developing, and building stages of the spacecraft would call for over 400 million workers. 400 million people is more people than the entire population of the United States. The Apollo moon program employed 400,000 people and over 20,000 industrial firms, and experts say that since the interstellar spaceship would need 1,000 times more manpower than the Apollo program, great amounts of people all over the world would be needed. For this to happen, agreements must be made, peace must be kept, and conflicts could not arise throughout the majority of countries.

The interstellar spaceship could end up being a project to promote peace throughout the world, although that is only if the entire world eventually comes together to begin funding and putting forth effort into this project. The effort and funding shown throughout countries must be close to equal to avoid divergence, and we all must strive and aim for the same goal: to expand the horizons of humanity to other galaxies. The entire interstellar spaceship program relies on our ability as humans to have social stability, trust, and diligence throughout our entire world.

The Possibility of Finding Other Life in Space
Imagine being the scientist who revolutionized society more than almost any scientist ever before. You would be famous, loved, looked-up to, and eventually have your name engraved in large textbooks all over the world. This is what many scientists dream of, and the person who might make that enormous discovery, may be whoever can discover the first extraterrestrial life form. If someone went on national television and proclaimed that there was life on Mars, this would obviously create a ripple throughout society. While the chance of an announcement like this occurring is very small, from what we know today, life found anywhere accessible to us Earthlings would be a tremendous deal. If there was a nearby planet capable of supporting life, humans would be interested. A handful would be going as far as making plans to move, but the general population would stay on Earth, disappointed. Most of us are going to be grounded on the planet that we are to be born, but after the craze will die down, the majority of the population will most likely be content with Earth.


In a couple decades, once the Terrestrial Planet Finder, Kepler Mission telescope, and the COROT satellite, and maybe many other futuristic telescopes have done their jobs, an encyclopedia of many Earth-like planets will be available. This encyclopedia will list which Earth-like planets have water, and what chemicals are in their atmospheres, and many other helpful characteristics to know about newly discovered planets. Scientists, researchers, and astronomers will quickly determine exactly which planets they believe will have the highest chance of supporting life. Then, countries all over the world will begin with the building of advanced, robotic probes to be sent to those planets to attempt to discover extraterrestrial life before any other country. This will be similar to the space race in the fact that countries will compete against each other for honor, although what will be different is that with the commercialization of space, many very rich organizations will attempt to discover the first extraterrestrial life forms, too. In this way, this new form of space race may even resemble the gold rush in way that all scientists, researchers, and astronomer everywhere will compete to send out probes to explore the vast cosmos to find their beloved science fiction aliens. Thus, causing social tensions to rise.

The discovery of intelligent aliens would revolutionize how we interact. Humans could communicate with them. Although scientists believe that there are other planets suitable for life, many years of searching have brought no such discoveries of creatures or any life of the sort. Even if these creatures are found, it is so far said that we should not show ourselves to the creatures and give away our presence. This seems cowardly, although many philosophers scientists believe that giving our presence away to an entirely different form of life that may be very intelligent, could be very dangerous if not handled extremely carefully. Therefore, it is said that once this massive space-gold-rush sort of event ends with the hopeful discovery of extraterrestrial life, we will begin to study the life very judiciously. Social tensions may rise, although no matter what, finding any form of extraterrestrial life would be ground-breaking information that our society would study diligently to find out more.

Space Elevator
One of the main goals of the space elevator is to provide a new source of tourism to entertain people all with shipping cargo into space. If an organization our company were to fund the space elevator, the main objective would be to eventually get a profit off of rich tourists. Even further into the future, the space elevator might become a cheaper option for a vacation than people think, for it is predicted that the space elevator would eventually be only about ten times more than you pay for an airplane ticket. If this were to happen, then tourism as a whole would revolutionize. Socially, it would be the new cool vacation to go up into space rather than going to a beach. If there were to be only one successful space elevator funded by one country or organization, then this country or origination would be an utter monopoly in means of tourism. With the large amount of people riding the space elevator, it would have to be constantly guarded from terrorist attacks and be extremely secure to avoid safety hazards with weather. Space would be the new beach and if successful, the space elevator would produce a massive monopoly of power.


Essential Terminology


As you read the chapter, you are responsible to select 5 words that you'd consider important vocabulary for understanding the chapter. These words should be either words you do not already know the definition to or words you don't use on a regular basis. For each word complete the following. Each student must include 5 vocabulary words and draft the meaning and use it in a sentence but all students should work together to come to a final agreement on the word's meaning and sentences. The sentences should show an understanding of the word's meaning and be related to the topic. Use the comment feature for this.

Vocabulary

Exoplanet
A planet outside of the Solar System.
Sentence: Some scientists believe there may be life on exoplanets.


Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (Page 299)
A space mission idea designed to detect and measure gravitational waves that will hopefully be launched in the future
Sentence: The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna mission is a collaboration of two space agencies that is supposed to be launched in the future.


Apophis (Page 305)
A near-Earth asteroid that caused a brief period of concern in December 2004 because initial observations indicated a probability of up to 2.7% that it would hit Earth in 2029.
Sentence: Apophis is a large asteroid that will make a close pass in 2029.


Disillusioned (Page 303)
To be disappointed in someone or some object that one discovers to be less good than one had believed.
Sentence: Many people were disillusioned by futurist, when their predictions never came true.


Interstellar spaceship
A spaceship that would have the ability to travel through outer space and to other stars and planets in our galaxy.
Sentence: The perfect model of a successful interstellar spaceship has not yet been created .


Reconnaissance (Page 340)
A military observation of a region to locate an enemy or ascertain strategic features.
Sentence: Reconnaissance can be located in our chapter about space travel.


Andromeda Galaxy (Page 330)
The Andromeda Galaxy is a spiral galaxy approximately 2.5 million light-years from Earth in the Andromeda constellation.
Sentence: I hope to learn more about the Andromeda Galaxy.


Simulation
The imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time.
Sentence: The space simulation made him feel sick.


Micrometeorite
An extraterrestrial particle, ranging in size from 50 mm to 2 mm, that collects on the Earth's surface.
Sentence: The micrometeorite is so small it can pass through Earth's surface.


Terraforming
The theoretical process of deliberately modifying its atmosphere, temperature, surface topography or ecology to be similar to the biosphere of Earth to make it habitable by Earth-like life
Sentence: The terraforming of Mars would enable people to live there.


Transcontinental
Crossing a continent.
Sentence:The transcontinental flight took hours.


Centrifugal
Moving or tending to move away from a center
Sentence: Roller coaster cars are held on by a centrifugal force.


Lunar
Related to the Moon
Sentence: Alex creates an unusual form of art using moon dust and other lunar artifacts.


Chlorofluorocarbons
Compounds of gases made of carbon, chlorine, fluorine, or hydrogen. They harm the ozone layer and diminish its protection. some aerosol sprays are made of them
Sentence: Chlorofluorocarbons pollute our air here on Earth and weaken the ozone layer.


Vistas (Page 302)
a mass amount of ideas that may become reality in the future
Sentence: An interstellar spaceship being built would truly open up new vistas for humanity.


Vaporize (Page 318)

the act of changing an item into a vapor

Sentence: In cartoons, you may see a little Martian with a a gun that can vaporize objects.


Nanotubes (Page 322)
a miniature cylindrical molecule
Sentence: Strong nanotubes may be the small, light, strong solution to many current building issues.


Propulsion (Page 320)

The force that keeps an object going forward

Sentence: Nuclear propulsion is used to propel an object in a direction with nuclear energy.


Antimatter (Page 332)
atoms consisting of antiprotons, antineutrons and positrons; opposite of matter, extreme form of energy
Sentence: When antimatter combines with matter, a very large release of energy occurs.


Goldilocks Zone (Page 297)

Region in space where life is most likely to emerge. i.e., the Habitable zone.

Sentence: I heard they just found evidence of alien life in the Goldilocks Zone.


Ramjet (Page 326)
A certain type of engine that draws air and chemicals into itself and combusts the gases to use for fuel. The gases are compressed only by the engine's movement.
Sentence: Ramjet engines are most commonly used in airplanes.


Solar sail (Page 326)
A form of spacecraft propulsion that utilizes radiation from nearby stars to create force and motion.
Sentence: Solar sails, because of their massive size, have to be created in space.


Nanoships (Page 326)
Very tiny conceptual starships that, in theory, would be sent into space as swarms in order to observe faraway celestial bodies.
Sentence: Scientists may soon have to rely on nanoships to find other planets.


Exodus (Page 340)
A very large departure of people.
Sentence: The Earth might experience exodus if a new, habitable planet is discovered.


Nullify (Page
To cause (an object) to lose its value or to have no effect
Sentence: If it is established that the game is cancelled, there will be no need to nullify it.


Kepler Spacecraft (Page 296)
A space observatory launched by NASA to discover Earth-like planets orbiting other stars
Sentence: The Kepler Spacecraft found life on Mars.


Europa (Page 297)
One of the 63 moons on Earth, which is now thought to be able to sustain life as it contains liquid water under a layer of ice.
Sentence: Europa is the sixth closest moon of the planet Jupiter.







Team Members


Put your username or first name only and your school below. If your team designated you with a specific task like lead editor, copy editor, or another task that you want done on the page, please note that.


  • Perra H.-Westwood-Camilla,GA
  • Jenna A.-Westwood-Camilla, GA
  • Molly S. -Westwood -Camilla,GA
  • Luke S. -Bettendorf Schools- Bettendorf, IA
  • Jill S. -Bettendorf Schools- Bettendorf, IA
  • Peyton W. -Bettendorf Schools- Bettendorf, IA

References


Insert your references below using the footnote feature on the wiki. This should be included for any direct quotations or citations of studies. Remember that you should ALSO use a hyperlink in the sentence for the appropriate word.





"A conversation with NSS Space Elevator Team leader Bert Murray." //NSS//. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Mar. 2014. <http://www.nss.org/adastra/volume20/GoingUp-NSSSpaceElevatorTeam.pdf>


"Future of Spaceflight." //National Geographic//. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Mar. 2014. <http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/space/space-exploration/future-spaceflight>.


"Gallery: Visions of Interstellar Starship Travel." //Space.com//. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2014. <http://www.space.com/14291-photos-future-interstellar-starship-visions-spaceflight.html>.


"Interstellar Space Flight: Social and Economic Considerations | Icarus Interstellar." //Icarus Interstellar//. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Mar. 2014. <https://www.icarusinterstellar.org/interstellar-space-flight-social-economic-considerations/>.


Kaku, Michio, and Michio Kaku. //Physics of the future: how science will shape human destiny and our daily lives by the year 2100//. New York: Doubleday, 2011. Print.

"NASA Eyeing Nuclear Fusion Rockets for Future Space Exploration." //Space.com//. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. <http://www.space.com/21519-nasa-fusion-rocket-space-exploration.html>.

Obousy, Richard. "Interstellar Space Flight: Social and Economic Considerations | Icarus Interstellar."Icarus Interstellar. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. <http://www.icarusinterstellar.org/interstellar-space-flight-social-economic-considerations/>.

"Planet Quest: Missions - Terrestrial Planet Finder." //Planet Quest: Missions - Terrestrial Planet Finder//. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2014. <http://exep.jpl.nasa.gov/TPF/tpf_what_is.c

"Terrestrial Planet Finder : Project Status." //Terrestrial Planet Finder : Project Status//. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. <http://www.terrestrial-planet-finder.com/status.html>.

"The 100-Year Plan for Space Travel."//DNews//. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. <http://news.discovery.com/space/the-100-year-plan-for-space-travel-111003.htm>.

"Visions of Tomorrow, Yesterday and Today: Tourism Infrastructure." //Visions of Tomorrow, Yesterday and Today: Tourism Infrastructure//. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Mar. 2014. <http://www.antarcticaedu.com/visions/visi


"What is a Space Elevator?." //Universe Today RSS//. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Mar. 2014. <http://www.universetoday.com/105441/what-is-a-space-elevator/>.


"Which Way To Space?"" Washingtonpost.com. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/national/2013/11/23/which-way-to-space/>